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Which country in the world has the most time zones?

France has the most time zones. Despite the fact that the area of ​​this country is almost 26 times smaller than that of Russia, it is in this republic that there are 12 time zones. In Russia, there are only 11. & nbsp; In the USA & mdash; also 11 time zones, then comes & nbsp; Australia & mdash; 9, UK & mdash; 8 and Canada & mdash; 6 time zones.

What is a time zone? & Nbsp;

Back in the 19th century & nbsp; The International Astronomical Congress introduced such a concept as a zone hour. & Nbsp; Scientists conditionally divided the surface of our planet into 24 time zones & mdash; by the number of revolutions that the Earth makes around its axis. The time in each zone & nbsp; differs from the neighboring one by only an hour. & Nbsp;

Starting point from & nbsp; XX & nbsp; century & mdash; the zero reference meridian (it is located about 102 km from the Greenwich meridian, which has been used in calculations since 1884). When moving from it to the east, the time increases (up to UTC +14). When driving west & mdash; decreases (to UTC -12). & nbsp; For example, if in London, which is located on the prime meridian & mdash; 17.00 (UTC 0), to the west, in Cape Verde, & nbsp; will be 16.00 (UTC -1), east of London, in Paris & mdash; 18.00 (UTC + 1), and in Moscow the clock will show & nbsp; 20.00 (UTC + 3).

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) & mdash; it is the world standard by which time is now regulated. The abbreviation UTC has no specific meaning. When it was required to create a universal acronym in 1970, the International Telecommunication Union considered that the English CUT (Coordinated Universal Time) or the French TUC (Temps Universel Coordonne) were not suitable. Therefore, a neutral version of UTS was proposed. & Nbsp;

Note that according to the law & nbsp; “ On the Calculation of Time '', & nbsp; Russia also adopted the national time scale & mdash; MSK, MSK. Moscow time & mdash; this is the time of the time zone in which the capital of the Russian Federation is located. It serves as a reference time when calculating local time in time zones. MSK corresponds to the third time zone UTC +3. 11 & nbsp; time zones, from 1 to 11, correspond by international numbering to time zones from 2 to 12. & Nbsp;

The westernmost point of the Russian Federation & mdash; this is & nbsp; Kaliningrad & nbsp; region. According to Moscow time, it has the first time zone (MSK -1), and according to Coordinated Universal Time, the region is located in the time zone (UTC + 2). The westernmost territories of our country (Kamchatka Territory and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug) are located in the 11 time zone (MSK +9), and according to international standards, in (UTC + 12).

The largest number of Russian regions are located in the second time zone (MSK, UTC + 3). It combines & nbsp; 46 regions and three cities of federal significance (Moscow, St. Petersburg and Sevastopol).

How did it happen that there are 12 time zones in France?

The fact is that the boundaries of time zones run not only strictly along the meridians, but also along the state administrative boundaries, along water resources and even skirting the islands. One time zone can pass through the territory of each country, for example, as in Belarus or Egypt, two & mdash; as in Kazakhstan, in Ukraine, three & nbsp; & mdash; like in Indonesia and so on.

In Paris, as well as throughout the European part of France & mdash; one time zone (UTC + 1). However, do not forget that the French Republic includes several lands (echoes of colonial history), which are scattered across the world map.

According to the portal & nbsp; France.promotour.info, France has five overseas departments: Guadeloupe , Martinique, Guiana, Reunion, Mayotte. Five overseas territories: French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna Islands, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin. And also three territories with a special status: New Caledonia, Clipperton, French Southern and Antarctic Territories.

These lands, mainly consisting of islands, are located in 12 & nbsp; time zones. The westernmost point of the vast French territory & mdash; French Polynesia, located at (UTC -10). And the most eastern & mdash; these are Wallis and Futuna islands at (UTC +12).

List of 12 time zones in France:

  • (UTC & minus; 10) & mdash; French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean).
  • (UTC & minus; 9:30) & mdash; Marquesas Islands (Pacific Ocean).
  • (UTC & minus; 9) & mdash; Gambier Islands (Pacific Ocean).
  • (UTC & minus; 8) & mdash; Clipperton Island (Pacific Ocean).
  • (UTC & minus; 4) & nbsp; & mdash; Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin (Caribbean).
  • (UTC & minus; 3) & mdash; French Guiana (South America), the archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Atlantic Ocean).
  • (UTC + 1) & mdash; France (Europe) and the island of Corsica.
  • (UTC + 3) & mdash; Mayotte (Indian Ocean).
  • (UTC + 4) & mdash; Reunion (Indian Ocean).
  • (UTC + 5) & mdash; Kerguelen Islands, St. Paul's and Amsterdam (Indian Ocean).
  • (UTC + 11) & mdash; New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean).
  • (UTC + 12) & mdash; Wallis and Futuna (Pacific Ocean).

Is it true that the French think they live in 13 & nbsp; time zones?

If you look at the articles on time and time zones in the French Wikipedia, then it is indicated that there are not 12, but 13 time zones on the territory of the republic (La France a le plus de zones avec 13 zones). The 13th time zone (UTC +10), according to the French, is located on the Land of Adelie, included by France in the & nbsp; composition of its Southern and & nbsp; Antarctic territories.

This small coastal stretch of Antarctica was discovered in 1840 by the French expedition Jules Dumont d'Urville and named after his wife. Naturally, France claimed the rights to this site and still considers it its own. In addition, the French scientific station Dumont d & # 39; Hurville has been operating on Adelie Land since 1956.

Nevertheless, the international community does not recognize France's territorial rights to the Land of Adelie. Since in 1961 the indefinite & nbsp; treaty on Antarctica came into force (it was ratified by 13 states, including France, USSR, USA, Japan, Great Britain, etc.), which froze any territorial claims to the southernmost continent of the planet (not only France presented rights to Antarctic lands). Currently, more than 50 states are parties to the treaty. Antarctica has been declared a nuclear-weapon-free zone for scientific research only. & Nbsp;

Sources of information:

time.is

dayspedia.com/time/zones/utc-about/

bigenc.ru/physics/text/4680475

bigenc.ru/physics/text/2146374

france.promotour.info/ate/index.php

fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_des_fuseaux_horaires_par_pays ria.ru/20141130/1035503295.html
& nbsp;

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Gadgets and a basket of berries. What is asked of Santa Claus today?

Weekly “Arguments and Facts” No. 52. What to prepare for the New Year's table? 29/12/2021 Plot The Journey of Santa Claus

The whole December in & nbsp; Veliky Ustyug works “ Mail of Father Frost ''. Letters & nbsp; & mdash; millions.

On the eve of the New Year, children write to Santa Claus, not hesitating to express their innermost dreams and desires. But & nbsp; are not written by & nbsp; only they. & Nbsp;

Opinion of Santa Claus, Veliky Ustyug :

For & nbsp; 20 & nbsp; years on & nbsp; mail in & nbsp; Veliky Ustyug received 4 & nbsp; million letters. Children often ask for gadgets (phones, laptops, tablets), hoverboards, longboards, large dolls or construction toys. But & nbsp; there are kids who ask to give them & nbsp; in the middle of winter a basket of berries, as in the & nbsp; tale about Frost, & nbsp; & mdash; I & nbsp; received such a letter from & nbsp; Vasilisa from & nbsp; Stavropol. Or celebrate your birthday in a & nbsp; limousine, as Stas dreamed of from & nbsp; Yekaterinburg.

Picture AiF/A. Dorofeev

Over the past two years, more and more children have been wishing people from & nbsp; all over the world, yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; me, the old man, health & shy; me. This is especially important now. By the way, during & nbsp; this time I & nbsp; received along with & nbsp; letters some interesting gifts: cones jam, ginger to increase immunity and & nbsp; medical masks, some of them were made by hand.

But & nbsp; I am especially touched when children ask for gifts not & nbsp; for themselves, but & nbsp; for parents, brothers and & nbsp; sisters, grandmothers and & nbsp; grandfathers, friends. & Nbsp; I have a box, in which I & nbsp; keep the kindest and & nbsp; touching messages. For example, a letter from Sasha Bykov from & nbsp; Omsk region: he & nbsp; asked to give his little sister a doll, great-grandfather & nbsp; & mdash; new boots, and & nbsp; grandmother & nbsp; & mdash; a basket of apples. And & nbsp; Sasha Prokhorov from & nbsp; St. Petersburg told me about & nbsp; girl Vika with a & nbsp; difficult diagnosis, which he & nbsp; promised: if she & nbsp; learns to walk on her own, I & nbsp; will definitely come to & nbsp; her at & nbsp; guests. I & nbsp; believe that Vika will take her first steps, and & nbsp; we & nbsp; will meet her. There were especially many such good stories of human mutual assistance during the & nbsp; time of my participation in the & nbsp; social project “ The Journey of Santa Claus with & nbsp; NTV ''. I & nbsp; always try to tell about & nbsp; them, because this is the & nbsp; very warm, which will warm and & nbsp; & nbsp; severe frost. To envelop another person with attention and & nbsp; care for & nbsp; forces to everyone, the main thing & nbsp; & mdash; want to do it.

Adults write to me too, it's not true that they stop believing in & nbsp; miracles! The girls are asking to help them & nbsp; meet the man of their & nbsp; dreams, health to children, family happiness. And & nbsp; men want a career, a new car, a raise. Older people talk about & nbsp; their experiences for & nbsp; the fate of their children and & nbsp; grandchildren. It's great when the & nbsp; family has several generations, and & nbsp; they take care of each other, and & nbsp; and & nbsp; on New Year's Eve get together.

New, 2022 & nbsp; year is coming very soon. I & nbsp; wish you good days, happy moments and & nbsp; good health. May everything that you & nbsp; dream of will come true! I hug in kilometers.

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Leap into the future, coal as a gift. 10 original ways to celebrate the New Year

Celebration of the New Year in Russia is surrounded by long-standing traditions and stereotypes: & nbsp; Olivier salad, herring under a fur coat, tangerines, Blue Light, Irony of Fate, champagne for battle chimes after the President's speech.

Someone likes this order of things, but there are those who want to try something new. It is not difficult to do this, since in the world of options for celebrating the New Year there is a great variety – perhaps even more than recognized states on the globe. It is clear that not everything can suit the Russians due to the mentality, as well as the peculiarities of the climate. But there are options quite affordable, allowing you to experience new festive sensations.

Method one. Pour water out of the window at New Year's midnight

This option is widely practiced in Cuba. In the simplest version, it looks like this: & nbsp; the glass is filled with plain water, not champagne. When the clock strikes midnight, the contents of the glass should be poured out the window. At the same time, it is not worth breaking the dishes, so as not to knock down again into Russian customs.

The meaning of the procedure, according to the Cubans, is as follows: as clear and clean.

In general, in Cuba, water is poured into the windows not only from glasses, but from cans and buckets, and if this generous stream falls on someone's head, then the drenched one is not offended, but rejoices .

But in Russia, of course, it is worth making an amendment to the conditions & mdash; & nbsp; if someone in Siberia at a temperature of “ minus 30 '' pouring a bucket of water on your head from the 10th floor is unlikely to cause delight.

Method two. Kiss blindly at the festive table

This method of celebration, practiced in Bulgaria, is suitable only for prepared companies. Throwing kisses at people without warning is fraught with great trouble. In Bulgaria, everything happens like this: & nbsp; exactly at New Year's midnight, the lights go out in the houses, and everyone present begins to kiss. And it doesn't matter at all who is with whom & mdash; relatives and strangers, men with women, as well as men with men. After kissing for good luck the mistress of the house is cutting a birthday cake, and here you have to be careful too – ” it is customary among Bulgarians to put “ surprises '' in it. If you come across a sprig of a rose, then this is for love, if a coin, this is for wealth. & Nbsp; In general, if you have friends and acquaintances who are ready for such experiments, then go ahead!

Method three. Find love in the lottery

As in the previous case, you will need a company of men and women who are ready for adventures. It is desirable that it was about people who are not in a relationship. They can be invited to celebrate the New Year in Spanish.

In the country of bullfighting and fiery dances on New Year's, young people and girls write their names on scraps of paper, which they then draw out like lottery tickets. This is how pairs of “ suitors '' are defined. and brides. This kind of 'love at first sight' lasts, according to tradition, until the end of Christmastide. & nbsp; But no one bothers to continue the relationship, begun in such an original way, and further.

But if you are already a family person, then the Spaniards have a New Year's recipe for you & mdash ; & nbsp; in the central square of the city exactly 12 o'clock, when the clock starts striking, you need to eat grapes. Each grape represents one month of the coming year, and if you eat 12 berries while the clock strikes, this guarantees the fulfillment of your most cherished desire.

Method four. Throw old things out of the house

Italians & nbsp; for the most part & nbsp; have sympathy for Russians, and Russians & mdash; & nbsp; for Italians. Therefore, it is quite logical to use the Italian recipe for celebrating the New Year. According to Italian tradition, before the clock strikes midnight, old and unnecessary things should be thrown out of the house so that they remain in the outgoing year with all the hardships and troubles.

What exactly to throw away depends only on the imagination of the celebrant. In Italy, it is not recommended to walk under the windows of houses on New Year's Eve, because something very weighty can easily fly out from there, right down to the grandmother's sofa.

It is clear that in Russia such “ surprises '' Not everyone is ready, so you should act carefully.

Well, if you are not ready to throw something through the windows, just give your loved one red underwear & mdash; & nbsp; among Italians, red is considered a symbol of renewal.

The fifth method. Smash the grenade against the wall of the house

If at New Year's midnight you go out into the courtyard and launch a grenade at the wall of the house, it is unlikely that someone will blame you for this – they will think that the person was celebrating at an accelerated pace. But you will celebrate the New Year like a real Greek. According to Greek tradition, on New Year's Eve midnight, the owner of the house must break a pomegranate fruit against the wall. If the seeds are scattered throughout the yard, a happy life awaits the family in the coming year.

It is unlikely that anyone will want to receive a New Year's gift in the form of a mossy stone in Russia, and such a present can easily lead to a quarrel. But the Greeks, who are presented with stones, rejoice – they know that this is a desire for increased prosperity. It is believed that the heavier the stone, the more money will be next year from those to whom it was presented.

Sixth method. Give a friend a piece of coal

If you come to a friend's house and hand him a piece of coal, then & nbsp; at least & nbsp; there will be questions. And here it is worth immediately explaining to him that you are simply congratulating you on the New Year, like a true Scotsman. Scots on New Year's Eve visit each other with a piece of cake, a glass of wine and a piece of coal. It is not a matter of the Scots' tight-fistedness, although there are jokes about the thriftiness of this nation. Coming with such gifts, you wish the owners prosperity & mdash; a lot of food, drink and warmth. But, having shown such originality, it is still better to have with you a gift, which is more familiar in our area. Just in case.

Method seven. Prepare rice porridge instead of Olivier

If, instead of a traditional salad, your guests see rice porridge on the festive table, there will be many assumptions. You may be suspected of being a vegetarian, an adherent of a healthy lifestyle, or a supporter of returning to the customs of Ancient Russia.

You just explain with a smile that you are celebrating the New Year in Finnish. It is rice porridge & mdash; traditional New Year's food of the inhabitants of this country. Plum jelly is served with porridge.

If someone remains dissatisfied, you can pour him a rod, explaining that this is how the good New Year's wizard Joulupukki greets the disobedient on New Year's Eve.

Method eight. Throw old receipts on the road

If on New Year's Eve you throw out a bunch of old bills for various goods and services on the street, you may be considered a bully who does not respect the work of street cleaners. Or think that you are in serious trouble at work and do it out of desperation. But this is just a way to celebrate the holiday like a real Argentinian. In Argentina itself, they do not really remember when and how this tradition was born, but they sacredly observe it. Before the holiday, old calendars, receipts, letterheads and other unnecessary documents fly out of the windows onto the street. And all this is happening so intensely that the streets are literally covered with layers of paper. The subsequent cleaning & mdash; & nbsp; lesson is no less fun.

Method nine. Release live carp into a river or any other body of water

Here, of course, you have to try. First, find a carp, and then also find a reservoir on New Year's Eve, where poor fish can be released without the risk of killing it immediately in low temperatures. But the game is worth the candle, because, according to Vietnamese beliefs, a deity swims on the back of a carp, capable of providing you with good luck for the next year. And in general, you will definitely not forget the New Year with live carp.

Method ten. Jump into the New Year

This is an unusual option, but & nbsp; by and large does not require additional costs. In Germany, Denmark and a number of other European countries, in the coming year, take jumping in.

A stool, chair, stepladder, and in general any stable object that can be climbed is suitable for this.

You need to climb the dais at the first strike of the clock, and with the last one you should jump into the New Year with a joyful cry, leaving the past behind. There is no need to set records in length and height, the very fact of the “ transition '' is important.

Happy New Year, no matter how you meet it!

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The doctor explained why it is necessary to give up sweets on New Year’s Eve

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The rabbi told what to do if the New Year falls on Shabbat

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NSDC of Ukraine imposed sanctions against the builders of the Crimean bridge

The National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine introduced sanctions against six individuals and 24 legal entities who built the Crimean bridge Restrictions are imposed against six individuals and 24 legal entities. Earlier, Ukraine has repeatedly opposed the construction of the Crimean Bridge

The National Security and Defense Council (NSDC) of Ukraine introduced sanctions against individuals and legal entities who participated in the construction of the Crimean bridge.

The NSDC said that the “ list of individuals and legal entities, in respect of which personal special economic and other restrictive measures '' have been applied, has been expanded. The sanctions are imposed on six people and 24 legal entities “ involved in the illegal construction and operation of the railway section of the transport crossing through the Kerch Strait. ''

Restrictions proposed to introduce the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The list of sanctions is not provided in the NSDC statement. At the briefing, the Secretary of the Security Council Aleksey Danilov specified that it contains not only Russian, but also foreign companies, UNIAN reports. Now the decision should be put into effect by the President of the country, Volodymyr Zelensky.

The sanctions list also includes 18 people “ involved in making unjust court decisions on the alienation of property of the Crimean Diocese of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine '', and 52 individuals holding leading positions in the administration of the Republic of Crimea, as they “ cause significant damage to national interests and security of the Ukrainian people. '' It began to be built in 2016, finished & mdash; in 2019. It consists of two parallel bridges & mdash; road and rail.

Ukraine has repeatedly opposed the construction of the bridge. Sanctions against individuals and legal entities involved in the construction of the bridge were introduced by the European Union, which believes that it is aimed at “ further isolating the peninsula from Ukraine.

Crimea joined Russia following a referendum in 2014. Western countries and Ukraine did not recognize the voting results and announced the temporary occupation of the peninsula. Moscow has repeatedly called the issue of Crimea's ownership closed.

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Putin and Biden agreed to maintain dialogue after New Year

Vladimir Putin and Joe Biden agreed to continue negotiations after the New Year Russian Presidential Aide Yuri Ushakov described the telephone conversation between the two leaders as serious and meaningful. It was all about security guarantees. Negotiations between the USA and Russia on this topic will be held in Geneva on January 10

The presidents of Russia and the United States, Vladimir Putin and Joe Biden, agreed to continue the dialogue after the New Year, said assistant to the Russian leader Yuri Ushakov following telephone conversations between the heads of state, writes TASS.

As Ushakov noted, the conversation between the presidents turned out to be serious, businesslike and meaningful. It was “ devoted entirely to issues of security guarantees '', the leaders did not touch upon the issues of bilateral relations.

“ Putin said that we attach great importance to negotiations, but they should not turn into chatter. We are not waiting for the contractual process itself, but for concrete results '', & mdash; Ushakov emphasized.

Biden, in his words, “prepared well and made very meaningful remarks.” Putin, in turn, outlined the basic principles of the Russian side. “ Main & mdash; we need a result, and we will achieve a result in the form of ensuring the guaranteed security of Russia. The US President, in principle, agreed with this point of view and reacted quite logically and quite seriously, '' & mdash; noted the presidential aide.

On January 10, talks between Russia and the United States on security guarantees will take place in Geneva. The parties will discuss Moscow's proposals submitted to Washington and NATO on December 15. In particular, Russia demands that the United States rule out further expansion of NATO to the east and the admission of the countries of the former USSR into the alliance. Also, the United States should not create military bases on their territory.

Washington, in response, promised to prepare its own list of concerns.

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Biden warned Putin about decisive response to aggression against Ukraine

Joe Biden told Vladimir Putin that the US would decisively respond to the invasion of Ukraine The US President stressed the need to de-escalate the situation on the Russian-Ukrainian border for the success of Washington-Moscow negotiations on security guarantees. They will be held on January 10 in Geneva

US President Joe Biden, in a conversation with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin, made it clear that Washington would take decisive measures in the event of Russia's invasion of Ukraine. This is stated in a statement by White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki.

Biden stressed that “significant progress in the [security] negotiations can only be achieved by de-escalating the situation.” The American leader supported the holding of bilateral consultations on strategic stability.

Aide to the President of Russia Yuri Ushakov said that Putin told his American colleague that the “ unprecedented sanctions '' that the West threatens to impose in the event of an attack on Ukraine could lead to a complete rupture of relations between the United States and Russia.

As noted. Reuters, citing a US administration official, said the main task of the two leaders' telephone conversation was to set the 'tone and direction'; the upcoming security talks in January.

The official said that the presidents saw an opportunity for progress in the upcoming talks, but also found aspects on which an agreement might not be reached.

Ushakov described the telephone conversation between Putin and Biden as serious, business-like and meaningful. The talks were entirely devoted to security guarantees, the issue of bilateral relations was not touched upon.

Vladimir Putin stressed that the Russian side will “ achieve results in the form of ensuring guaranteed security for Russia. '' Biden, according to Ushakov, “ in principle agreed with this point of view and reacted quite logically and quite seriously. ''

On December 15, the Russian Foreign Ministry published a draft agreement on security guarantees. In particular, Moscow proposed not to admit the countries of the former USSR, including Ukraine, to NATO, and to abandon military activities on the territory of these states.

Washington promised to prepare a reciprocal list of proposals.

23 Psaki said in December that the United States is not ready to agree with Russia's proposals for security guarantees related to NATO. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said that the alliance will not compromise on Ukraine's entry into it.

Talks between Russia and the United States on security guarantees will be held on January 10 in Geneva, the Russian Foreign Ministry confirmed. Stoltenberg also proposed to hold a meeting of the Russia & mdash; NATO on January 12.

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Putin pointed out to Biden the possibility of breaking off relations due to sanctions

Putin told Biden about the possibility of severing relations between Russia and the United States in the event of new sanctions The President of Russia in a telephone conversation with his American counterpart said that the “unprecedented sanctions” with which the West threatens Moscow could lead to a “complete rupture” of relations between the two countries

< img class = "aligncenter" src = "https://s0.rbk.ru/v6_top_pics/media/img/0/84/756409100556840.jpg" alt = "Putin pointed out to Biden about the possibility of breaking off relations due to sanctions" />

Russian President Vladimir Putin told his American colleague Joe Biden in a telephone conversation that the West's imposition of “ unprecedented sanctions '' because of Ukraine can lead to a complete rupture of relations between the countries. This was stated by his assistant Yuri Ushakov, reports TASS.

He noted that Biden warned of large-scale sanctions “ in the event of continued escalation along the Ukrainian border. '' “ But our president immediately reacted to this by saying that if the West nevertheless decides to introduce these unprecedented sanctions under certain conditions, then all this could lead to a complete rupture of relations between our countries, '' & mdash; Ushakov noted. According to him, Putin stressed that in this case, Russia's relations with the West would be “ seriously damaged. ''

White House spokesman Jen Psaki said after a conversation between the heads of state that Biden had warned Putin about decisive measures in the event of a Russian attack on Ukraine. The American leader stressed that “ significant progress in the [security] negotiations can only be achieved if the situation is de-escalated. ''

In October and November, some Western media began to publish data on the impending 'invasion' Russia to Ukraine. Moscow has repeatedly denied this information. Putin said during a videoconference with Biden on December 7 that “ NATO is making dangerous attempts to conquer Ukrainian territory. '' and is building up its military capabilities at the Russian borders. He indicated that Russia is interested in legal guarantees that the alliance will not expand to the east.

During a telephone conversation on December 30, the presidents discussed security guarantees. Putin stressed that Moscow will “ achieve results in the form of guaranteed security for Russia. '' Biden, according to Ushakov, “in principle agreed with this point of view.”

In mid-December, the Russian side sent the United States and NATO a draft treaty on security guarantees and an agreement on measures to ensure the security of Russia and the countries of the North Atlantic Alliance. In particular, Moscow proposed to refuse the inclusion of the countries of the former USSR in the bloc and the deployment of NATO military bases on their territory. Secretary General of the alliance Jens Stoltenberg expressed readiness to conduct a dialogue with Moscow, but said that NATO would not compromise on Ukraine's right to apply for membership.

State Department spokesman Ned Price said that the United States would prepare a response to Russia's proposals on security guarantees in Europe.

On December 28, the White House announced the dates of negotiations with Russia on security guarantees: on January 10, negotiations between Moscow and Washington will take place, on January 12 & mdash; meeting of the Council Russia & mdash; NATO, and January 13 & mdash; meeting of representatives of Russia and the OSCE. The Foreign Ministry confirmed that consultations with the United States will take place on January 10.

Putin previously stated that Russia's military-technical response to the refusal of the United States and NATO to consider its security proposals could be “ very different. ''

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Biden at the talks did not name specific reasons for “large-scale sanctions” for Russia

US President Joe Biden held a 50-minute telephone conversation with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin. The American leader pointed to the dichotomy of further relations between the countries.

Biden voiced the version of both a possible de-escalation of tension through diplomacy and sanctions against the Russian Federation. A high-ranking representative of the Washington administration told reporters about this.

The first approach, according to Biden, is the path of diplomacy leading to de-escalation of the situation. The second path is more focused on deterrence and economic measures, especially if Russia will send troops to Ukraine.

Russian diplomat, presidential aide Yuri Ushakov clarified that the American leader did not say which actions of the Russian Federation could lead to sanctions.

Biden mentioned only the so-called “large-scale sanctions, which many are already talking about in the West.” Then Putin noted that it would be a major mistake, which could lead to a complete rupture of relations.

Ushakova stressed that the essence of the last conversation was different, in order to continue the exchange of views on those issues that Russia “seriously worries “.

The journalists clarified what they mean when they talk about the possible” severing of ties with the West. ” Ushakov replied that so far this does not imply anything, so it is not known what “large-scale sanctions” are.

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Lavrov called the contacts of the Russian Federation with the Taliban working

Photo: Natalia Gubernatorova

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that the Russian Federation maintains working contacts through the embassy in Kabul with representatives of the Taliban “(Terrorist, prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation), who seized power in Afghanistan. The minister spoke about this in an interview with TASS.

The head of Russian diplomacy stressed that during the socio-economic crisis, the humanitarian sphere is a particularly relevant area of ​​practical interaction.

According to him, Russia in November and December delivered several consignments of humanitarian aid to Afghanistan and provided assistance to Afghan students who wished to return to the Russian Federation to continue their studies. Lavrov added that colleagues from the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation made a great useful contribution to this matter.

Recall that on December 18, the Russian Federation delivered to Afghanistan the third batch of humanitarian aid, which weighed 36 tons, it included food and medicine.

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US experts: Russia draws conclusions from the collapse of the Soviet Union

Many measures by the Russian government show that the Kremlin learned economic lessons from the collapse of the USSR. The government does not want to allow a repetition of the sad experience. Therefore, Russia has managed to strengthen itself in constant competition with the United States.

This was stated by Foreign Affairs analysts Michael Kofman and Robert Connolly. In their opinion, Moscow managed to withstand the imposed Western sanctions due to the fact that Russia's macroeconomic policy has become more conservative. Experts believe that the created reserves and a balanced budget in the absence of external debt played a special role.

They recalled that by the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union faced many difficulties. The growth of national income fell to the level of economic stagnation, quotes experts “InoSMI”. The market was supported by petrodollars, but foreign exchange earnings were used to solve current problems. The Politburo did not think about modernizing the economy.

Mikhail Gorbachev tried to introduce a new concept of domestic and foreign policy. Perestroika was able to partially revive the country's economy, but it was not possible to find the optimal combination of social guarantees and a market economy. At the end of 1989, the crisis escalated in all spheres of public life and social tensions began to build up.

Perestroika got out of control and the government was overthrown in 1990. The country was overwhelmed by nationalist sentiments, and against the background of falling confidence in the authorities, a “parade of sovereignties” began. The republics began to make decisions about secession from the Soviet Union. In 1991, the “Belovezhskaya Agreements” were signed, which actually consolidated the collapse of the USSR.

Read also General Akchurin told how the German Rust destroyed the command personnel of the USSR Air Defense Forces

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The Kremlin revealed the details of the conversation between Putin and Biden

On December 30, Moscow initiated a telephone conversation between the presidents of the Russian Federation and the United States, Vladimir Putin and Joe Biden.

According to the American leader, he agreed to hold these negotiations, as “he believes that when it comes to Russia, direct dialogue between the leader and the leader is indispensable.”

The RIA_Kremlinpool Telegram channel has published the details of this conversation.

  • The conversation lasted 50 minutes
  • It was constructive, and not like a “Christmastime gatherings”
  • We decided that further negotiations would go on 3 tracks
  • Putin outlined the basic principles of the submitted proposals
  • Moscow needs security guarantees, and it will seek them
  • Biden warned of sanctions
  • Putin replied that in the event sanctions may break relations with the West
  • Bai Den stressed that a nuclear war should not be started
  • Biden promised not to deploy offensive strike weapons in Ukraine
  • Agreed to continue the dialogue in the new year

According to Assistant to the President of the Russian Federation Yuri Ushakov, the success of negotiations between Moscow and Washington on security guarantees will lead to the normalization of bilateral relations. He noted that the presidents touched on this topic in a telephone conversation, and the idea was emphasized that in this case, relations would normalize or even improve.

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Biden promised Putin the main thing

According to the American President, the United States is not going to deploy offensive strike weapons in Ukraine

Presidential Aide Yuri Ushakov told reporters that the telephone conversation between Vladimir Putin and Joe Biden lasted 50 minutes.

photo en.wikipedia.org

“During this time, the presidents talked very substantively, all the main topics were touched upon,” he said, adding that the conversation was a logical continuation of the previous negotiations held in the VKS format on December 7.

According to Ushakov, Biden, like the Russian president, was well prepared for the conversation: despite the congratulations exchanged between the leaders, the conversation turned out to be serious. “It was not some kind of Christmas-time gatherings,” the Kremlin spokesman said.

He noted that in Moscow “in principle, they are satisfied with the contact: in general, the direction of the negotiations was quite constructive. Biden, according to Ushakov, showed a desire to understand the logic and essence of Russian concerns, which were transmitted to Washington and NATO headquarters.

Most important: Biden's promises about Ukraine. The American president, as Ushakov stressed, has clearly stated that the United States does not intend to deploy offensive strike weapons there. “This is a key point in our documents on which we are going to conduct substantive negotiations,” Putin told him in response.

Yuri Ushakov highlighted several agreements reached at the highest level: the presidents agreed that negotiations on security guarantees will take place along three tracks – on January 10 in Geneva (on the Russia-US line), on January 12 in Brussels (on the Russia-NATO line) and at 13 January Vienna (through the OSCE). Putin and Biden intend to personally monitor the progress of the Geneva and other negotiations, as well as pass on “valuable instructions” to their negotiating teams.

According to Ushakov, the Russian president detailed to his American counterpart the basic principles of the documents handed over by the Russian side and stressed that “the main result for us is the guaranteed security of Russia.” The talks, according to the Kremlin, “should not degenerate into idle talk.” “We’ll see two or three rounds, and then we’ll draw conclusions,” he said.

The main idea that the Russian president tried to explain to Biden during the telephone conversation: “Russia intends to behave the way the United States would behave if offensive weapons were deployed on American borders.” According to Ushakov, in order to convey it to the owner of the White House, Putin made several visits. And Biden, in his opinion, took these words seriously.

For his part, the American president has threatened that if the escalation continues along the Ukrainian border, Western countries will take large-scale sanctions against Russia in the economic and other spheres. Putin replied that such a step could lead to a complete rupture of relations between the Russian Federation and the United States and cause serious damage to our relations with the West in general. “It will be a huge mistake,” Ushakov told VVP.

Biden, according to a Kremlin spokesman, understands that a nuclear war cannot be started and cannot be won – he stressed this several times in a conversation with Putin. In addition, the American president said that the United States intends to consult with its allies on all tracks.

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Putin: Russia will behave like the United States on security issues

Aide to the President of Russia Yuri Ushakov commented on Vladimir Putin's talks with American leader Joe Biden.

Photo: Natalia Gubernatorova

According to him, the interlocutors during the 50-minute conversation touched upon key topics of Russian-American relations.

Ushakov added that President Putin warned his American counterpart that Moscow intends to behave like Washington in matters of security.

“The President emphasized that in a rather difficult current situation, the Russian Federation will behave the way the United States would behave,” Ushakov said, quoted by RIA Novosti.

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