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Putin announced five ways to export grain from Ukraine

Putin also named the causes of the food crisis, which Russia will be blamed for today.

There are no problems with the export of grain from Ukraine. This was stated by Russian President Vladimir Putin, commenting on Western statements about Russia's blockade of the export of Ukrainian grain.

The Russian leader announced five ways to do this at once.

According to Putin, grain can be exported through ports, controlled by Ukraine. For example, through Odessa.

Complicating the situation is the fact that this passage is mined. Since Russia is not involved in this, therefore, the demining process should be carried out by Ukrainian troops, Putin emphasized.

The President also added that Russia gives a full guarantee for peaceful passage “without any problems”.

The second way to export Ukrainian grain – through Russian-controlled ports in the Sea of ​​Azov. Moreover, without any conditions and with security, including for foreign ships both along the Azov and Black Seas and in any direction.

In addition, grain can be exported through Poland, along the Danube through Romania, and – “the easiest and cheapest way” – through Belarus. However, for this, sanctions must be lifted from this country, since such a condition comes personally from Lukashenka, the president explained in an interview with the journalist of the Rossiya 1 TV channel Pavel Zarubin.

Separately, Putin noted that accusing Russia of a food crisis is nothing more than “shifting the problem from a sick head to a healthy one”.

In addition, he recalled that the problem with food on the market began even before the NWO, in February 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition, as Putin explained, the “short-sighted policy” of the European Union, especially in the energy sector, namely, underinvestment in this sector of the economy.

Earlier, Topneews wrote that the G7 countries will create a “grain” alliance against Russia.

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CNN learned that the West is discussing plans to resolve the crisis in Ukraine without Kyiv

CNN: US, EU and UK discussed ways to resolve the situation in Ukraine without the participation of Kyiv The US, Britain and the EU are discussing ways to resolve the situation in Ukraine without the participation of representatives of Kyiv, sources told CNN. In particular, the parties considered Italy's plan for the autonomy of Crimea and Donbass, Washington does not support it

In recent weeks, US officials have been meeting with counterparts from the UK and the European Union to discuss possible ways to ceasefire and resolve situation in Ukraine, writes CNN, citing several informed sources.

Among other things, representatives of Western countries discussed a plan to resolve the conflict, proposed by the Italian authorities at the end of May. Representatives of Ukraine do not take a direct part in the discussion, despite the statements of Western leaders “nothing about Ukraine without Ukraine”, the interlocutors of the channel said.

There is growing concern among Western authorities that the conflict could drag on for years if Moscow and Kyiv do not come to an agreement, sources told CNN. Two NATO officials said they did not see much willingness to negotiate from Ukraine in the alliance, one of them clarified: “we can propose any plans we want, but Kyiv is unlikely to do anything that cedes territory at the moment.” .

At the same time, according to them, the US authorities did not put pressure on Kyiv, insisting on a certain plan and did not push them to negotiate with Russia. As two U.S. officials told CNN, there is no real support in Washington for the plan proposed by Rome.

The Italian plan to resolve the situation in Ukraine consists of four stages, the newspaper La Repubblica wrote. First of all, Rome proposed to secure a ceasefire and begin the process of demilitarization of the front line under the supervision of the UN. Then, negotiations should begin on the status of Ukraine, which will imply the country's refusal to join NATO, but joining the European Union.

The third stage consists in bilateral negotiations between Russia and Ukraine on the status of Crimea and Donbass, the Italian authorities proposed that the “disputed territories” received full autonomy with the right to independently ensure their own security, however, Ukraine will have sovereignty over them. The fourth point of Italy's plan involves a multilateral agreement, it will touch upon the issues of disarmament and control over this process, measures to build confidence, the newspaper wrote. After completing these phases, the Russian troops, according to the plan of the Italian authorities, will leave the territory of Ukraine.

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Authorities Italy was asked to create an international group that would oversee the implementation of the plan. The full list of its members has not yet been determined, however, according to La Repubblica, it does not include the United States, China, Germany, France, Turkey, Canada, Poland, Israel, the European Union and the UN.

< p>The Russian Security Council has called the Rome project “a cheap searchlight,” according to Deputy Chairman Dmitry Medvedev. In his opinion, the proposed solution to the situation is “a pure stream of consciousness of European graphomaniacs.”

“The West has embraced the itch of creating” peace plans “that should lead to a settlement of the crisis in Ukraine. And it would be nothing if it was about preparing options that somehow take into account the realities, — wrote Medvedev. He called the proposal for the autonomy of Crimea an insult to Russia, and the autonomy of Donbass — «obvious nonsense». The Kremlin noted that Medvedev's position is very important, but the wording of Italy's initiative should be carefully studied.

The American side supports any effort to find a peaceful solution to the conflict that would find support among the people of Ukraine, said US Ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas -Greenfield.

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Switzerland allowed the supply of equipment from its components to Ukraine

The authorities of the country considered the supply of Swiss-made military equipment to Ukraine a violation of the law on neutrality, but they did not see any problems with the transfer of weapons to Kyiv, half consisting of Swiss components

production to Ukraine does not contradict the neutrality clause, the Federal Council of Switzerland came to such a conclusion, according to the website of the government of the confederation.

The Swiss authorities examined two relevant applications, the German companies intended to request spare parts for anti-tank launchers, the Italian & mdash; spare parts for air defense systems (air defense). Both deals are associated with the risk of Swiss weapons getting into equipment, which as a result will end up in Ukraine, the government said.

Swiss law allows for the involvement of Swiss companies in international defense value chains, the Federal Council said. Transactions in this area are generally allowed, the report says, if the proportion of Swiss-made components is below a certain threshold in the final product. For Germany and Italy, this figure is 50%.

“The Federal Council decided to continue this practice. Such export is compatible with the law of neutrality,”” decided by the Swiss authorities.

At the same time, the authorities forbade the transfer of Swiss-made weapons, equipment or spare parts to Ukraine, the corresponding requests were received from Danish and German companies. The German side intended to transfer to Ukraine about 12.4 thousand 35-mm cartridges for the Gepard anti-aircraft tank. and BMP Piranha III. The Danish side intended to supply the Armed Forces with 22 Piranha III infantry fighting vehicles. The Federal Council stated: “In the event that the country of destination is involved in an international armed conflict, the export of military materials should be prohibited,” as this violates the neutrality clause.

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At the end of April, Switzerland refused Germany's request to supply Ukrainian forces with ammunition for the Marder infantry fighting vehicle, the newspaper SonntagsZeitung wrote, indicating that the German concern Rheinmetall is engaged in the production of infantry fighting vehicles, one of the factories is located in Zurich. “Both requests from Germany were answered in the negative with reference to Swiss neutrality,” — Swiss authorities said in a statement.

As SwissInfo pointed out, several defense industry plants are located in Switzerland, which have experienced an increase in the number of orders from European countries since the end of February. In particular, the head of the Swiss branch of Rheinmetall, Oliver Dürr, urged employees to accelerate the pace of production. Company spokesman Oliver Hoffmann noted that about 87% of total orders are delivered to NATO countries.

In early June, the Swiss Council of Cantons (small chamber of the Federal Assembly) approved a gradual increase in defense spending for the country— from about 5.4 billion this year to 7 billion francs by 2030, writes the Süddeutsche Zeitung. The newspaper indicates that this amount will be 1% of the country's GDP. Previously, since 1990, the budget of the Swiss armed forces has been reduced— from 1.34% to slightly less than 0.7% of GDP in 2019.

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Berlusconi saw the “isolation” of the West’s position on Ukraine from the rest of the world

Russia is isolated from the West, but the West is isolated from the rest of the world, Berlusconi believes, pointing out that even Turkey has not joined the sanctions against Moscow. He is sure that the largest countries of the world are not on the side of the West

Silvio Berlusconi

The different reactions of the countries of the world to what is happening in Ukraine showed the “bitter reality” and the isolation of Western countries from other states, which basically did not join the restrictive measures against Russia, said the former head of the Italian government Silvio Berlusconi in an interview with Il Giornale.

“What the Ukrainian crisis confronts us is a disturbing fact for the present and, above all, for the future. Russia is isolated from the West, but the West is isolated from the whole world,— Berlusconi claims.

He pointed out that the West refers to the United States, European countries and a number of Pacific states traditionally associated with Washington— Japan and Australia. He added: “There are very few [such countries] in the world.” Berlusconi noted that even Turkey, which is a member of NATO and supplied weapons to Ukraine, did not join the sanctions against Moscow. At the same time, the Turkish armed forces are numerically the second army of the alliance, Ankara plays an important role in the Mediterranean Sea and other regions.

Berlusconi added that Western countries take liberal democracy for granted, but it affects less than a quarter of the world's population. According to him, only 1.4 billion people out of 8 billion live under regimes of government that can be defined as free and democratic, the rest of the people “live in conditions of dictatorships, autocracies, oligarchies, theocracies of authoritarian or totalitarian systems to one degree or another.” ;.

“The largest countries in the world, China, India, Russia and dozens of other Asian, African, Latin American states are not currently on the side of the West”,— said the former Prime Minister of Italy.

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Berlusconi is not the first time criticized Western countries in the situation with the crisis in Ukraine. In mid-May, he said that there was no leader among European or world politicians. “One of the world leaders who was supposed to bring [Russian President Vladimir] Putin to the negotiating table called him a war criminal,” — added ex-premier. He also criticized the Russian authorities. In mid-April, Berlusconi said: “I cannot and do not want to hide the fact that I am deeply disappointed and upset by the behavior of Vladimir Putin, who has taken on a very serious responsibility to the world.”

Russian Presidential Representative Dmitry Peskov expressed confidence that Russia could not be isolated from the rest of the world because of its size. “In our time, it is impossible to isolate one sixth of the land either politically, or economically, or diplomatically, or informationally,” — he thinks.

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Zelensky urges US mayors to sever ties with Russia’s sister cities

According to the President of Ukraine, sister city ties do nothing for the United States, but allow Russia to say that it is not isolated. In March, relations with Moscow were interrupted by the Chicago authorities; cooperation was also terminated by a number of cities in Europe

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky during the US Conference of Mayors on Friday, June 3, called on the authorities of American cities to break off relations with Russian sister cities, reports The New York Times.

“What do these connections give you? Probably nothing. But they allow Russia to say that it is not isolated,— The newspaper quotes the Ukrainian president.

Representatives of Portland, who signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in 1988, commenting on Zelensky’s appeal, referred to a statement by the non-profit organization Sister Cities International (SCI), which did not recommend US cities to cut ties with Russian partner cities. In other cities, they did not respond to the newspaper's request.

Many American municipalities have partnerships with cities in other countries; they may involve business and political cooperation, but are mostly symbolic, notes the NYT.

Twin cities began to emerge after World War II, in part to help the post-war reconstruction process and reconcile former adversaries in Europe and Asia, Bloomberg notes. SCI was founded in 1956 under the 34th President of the United States, Dwight Eisenhower, with the goal of “supporting global cooperation at the municipal level, promoting cultural understanding, and spurring economic development.” The organization initiated efforts to strengthen ties between the US and the USSR; by 2018, the number of twin city pairs in Russia and the United States exceeded 60.

In March, shortly after the start of the Russian military operation in Ukraine, the Chicago authorities decided to suspend cooperation with Moscow (they became sister cities in 1997). According to local media, San Jose decided to maintain relations with Yekaterinburg. San Diego and Jacksonville are still sister cities of Vladivostok and Murmansk, respectively, writes the NYT.

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In March, a number of European cities decided to break off or suspend cooperation with Russian : Czech Cheb— with Nizhny Tagil, Oxford— with Perm, Rovaniemi (Finland)— with Murmansk, Tallinn— with Moscow and St. Petersburg, Gdansk— with St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad, Warsaw— with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Grozny, Nizhny Novgorod and Smolensk.

Moscow and Kyiv ceased to be sister cities in 2016.

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Covers of the magazine “Crocodile” in different years

In the publishing house “Working newspaper” On June 4, 1922, the first issue of the weekly illustrated supplement to the newspaper “Worker” was published. on 16 pages. From the 13th issue, the application became a magazine called “Crocodile”. At first it was a weekly, and since 1932 “Crocodile” began to be published 3 times a month, the Pravda publishing house was engaged in its release.

AiF.ru prepared a selection of covers for the Crocodile magazine.

Cover of the first issue of the Soviet satirical magazine Krokodil © Public Domain/Magazine Krokodil

Cover of 1924 Crocodile Magazine © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Krokodil magazine, February 1991, reproduction © RIA Novosti

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1927 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1926 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Crocodile magazine 1927 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of 1927 Crocodile Magazine © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

1962 Crocodile magazine cover © Commons.wikimedia.org

Cover of the first issue of the Soviet satirical magazine “Krokodil” © Public Domain/Magazine “Krokodil”

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1924 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of the magazine “Crocodile” for February 1991, reproduction © RIA Novosti

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1927 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1926 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Crocodile magazine 1927 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

Cover of Crocodile Magazine 1927 © Public Domain/Crocodile Magazine

1962 Crocodile magazine cover © Commons.wikimedia.org Estimated reading time: less than a minute

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Up to 23 degrees Celsius forecast for Saturday

Partly cloudy forecast in the Russian capital on Saturday, June 4, according to the official website of the Hydrometeorological Center of the Russian Federation.

“Partly cloudy. Light rain in places,” the message says.

Daytime air temperature in the city will be from 21 to 23 degrees Celsius.

Atmospheric pressure – 751 millimeters of mercury. Western wind at a speed of six to 11 meters per second.

On Sunday night, partly cloudy weather is predicted in the capital. Mostly without precipitation. The air temperature will be from ten to 12 degrees Celsius.

Western wind at a speed of six to 11 meters per second. Atmospheric pressure – 749 millimeters of mercury.

Earlier leading specialist of the weather center “Phobos” Yevgeny Tishkovets promised the Russians "honey" summer.

The head of the Hydrometeorological Center, Roman Vilfand, said that  fresh weather is expected in the European territory of the Russian Federation in early June.

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The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation showed the work of the Palantin electronic warfare complex

The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation spoke about the work of the latest complex of electronic warfare “Palantin” during a special military operation, the information and the corresponding video were published on the department's Telegram channel.

The Defense Ministry stressed that the electronic warfare complex “drops” reconnaissance UAVs of the Ukrainian military, “jamming” hotspots of mobile communication and sources of the Internet in the command posts of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, without violating civilian infrastructure.

“The system operates at a distance of more than 20 kilometers, and not with a directed beam, but with a point. Complex „Palantine“ two to three times superior in its capabilities to the Russian electronic warfare systems of the previous generation,” the report says.

It is noted that “Palantin” has no analogues in its combat capabilities “in any army of the leading foreign countries.” Earlier The Ministry of Defense showed footage of the movement of units of the Airborne Forces during the offensive.

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China unveils the composition of the new Tiangong crew

As part of the mission of the Shenzhou-14 spacecraft to the National Orbital Station of the People's Republic of China Tiangong taikonauts Chen Dong, Liu Yang and Cai Jiuzhe will depart, said Lin Xiqiang, deputy head of China's Manned Space Flight Program Office.

He clarified that the launch should take place on June 5 at 10:44  ). Taikonaut Chen Dong will act as commander of the ship. For him, this flight into space will be the second in his career as a taikonaut and the first as a crew commander.

The first female taikonaut in the history of Chinese manned astronautics, Liu Yang, participated in the Shenzhou-9 mission. in 2012.

For taikonaut Cai Jiuzhe, the upcoming flight will be the first in his career.

The launch will be carried out from the launch pad of the Jiuquan Cosmodrome in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using the Long March carrier rocket -2F". It is planned that the new crew will stay at the station for six months.

The Chinese station                taikonauts Zhai Zhigang, Ye Guangfu and Wang Yaping.

The crew of the Shenzhou-13 arrived at"Tiangong" October 16, 2021. The mission became the longest manned mission in the history of China's astronautics.

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What does the word “kraken” mean?

Kraken — this is a sea monster of gigantic size, which is often mentioned in books, films and various games.

What is the meaning of the word “kraken”?

According to the Dictionary of foreign words included in  ;composition of the Russian language edited by Chudinov, kraken — this is a fabulous sea monster, as if living in the depths of the northern seas, near Norway.

In English, the word kraken is borrowed from Scandinavian languages. In Norwegian and Swedish, kraken is a form of krake, which refers to something abnormal. In German, krake — this is an octopus and the mythical kraken.

Where did the legend about the kraken come from?

The first mention of the kraken is found in the essay "History of Northern Peoples" 1555 by Swedish historian and geographer Olaus Magnus. He described the monster as a giant fish with huge eyes, large bright red pupils and horns that resemble the roots of a tree uprooted from the ground. Allegedly, it was the horns that allowed the monster to drag even a huge ship to the bottom.

Further, Danish, French and other experts described the kraken. His description varied. For example, the size of the kraken was compared to a floating island, and its immersion on the seabed allegedly led to a strong whirlpool, which led to flooding of ships.

As scientists explain the legend of the kraken?

Some experts believe that the sailors' words about the kraken can be explained by underwater volcanic activity off the coast of Iceland, which manifests itself in bubbles rising from the water, a sudden change in currents, the appearance and disappearance of new islands.

However, in  In 1857, experts managed to prove the existence of a giant squid (Architeuthis dux), which could become the prototype of the kraken. The length of such squids, excluding trapping tentacles, is about five meters. In 2004, researchers from the National Science Museum of Japan and the Whale Watching Association took the first pictures of live giant squid in their natural environment, and in 2006, they managed to capture the giant on video. Giant squids are indeed capable of capsizing a small light boat, but experts consider stories of sunken ships mythical.

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Mannerheim – bend your line. What you need to know about the former Russian general

155 years ago, on June 4, 1867, in the Russian Empire, one of the most prominent patriots of Great Finland was born into the family of a Swedish count of German origin. This whole carousel seems like a heap of nonsense. But only at first glance. The name of the newborn immediately removes all contradictions. Carl Gustav Mannerheim.

And not friend and not enemy. And how?

Attitudes towards this figure have changed dramatically throughout our history. At first, he was simply Russian, as if in his board. Just think, the surname is some kind of non-Slavic. Yes few were there such? In addition, the Mannerheim clan was distinguished by a pronounced pro-Russian orientation — our hero's great-grandfather, Karl Erik Mannerheim, led the delegation sent to Russian Tsar Alexander I, which, thanks in part to the efforts of Mannerheim, granted the former Swedish province the status of an autonomous state within its empire. And also granted the Constitution, in a moment, raising the Finns above the rest of the subjects — let's say the Russians had to wait another hundred years for their Constitution with a ponytail.

In a word, at first our hero was Russian. Or rather, even so — Russian officer, part of the & nbsp; conditional imperial elite. In & nbsp; in fact, with & nbsp; with whom the emperor will not conduct intimate conversations. A with Mannerheim Russian Tsar Nicholas II he had such conversations, and not ever, but immediately after his coronation.

Then Mannerheim acquired the status of an enemy. A real enemy, cruel and merciless. With than our society — and Soviet and post-Soviet — was generally in agreement. True, with the passage of time and intensification of the information flow, his figure, as it were, went out of focus and lost sharpness. In fact, only a kind of meme — “Mannerheim Line”, referring to & nbsp; the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 & nbsp; But the general mood of no matter how one may say, but it s still the enemy», has not gone away.

But relatively recently, a number of attempts have been made to reduce this mood to neutral. And by formally broadening one's horizons. Say, how much can Mannerheim be identified with his famous Line? After all, there was a time when he faithfully and truly served Russia, so shouldn shouldn account for him?

A talented, but  performer

A tricky question. And here, the ancient gospel rule will come in handy: “By their fruits you will know them.” So what kind of fruits can Mannerheim boast?

This is where the trap lies. It would be very tempting to say that its fruits — this, for example, is a deep reconnaissance of the Mongolian territory during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905. Or the Asian Expedition of 1906-1908 with visiting mysterious Tibet and mapping hitherto unknown territories. Or desperate military operations of the First World War — the same "star attack" on the city of Yanov, when his cavalry liberated the city from Austrian troops in one dashing raid…

But if to argue honor by honor then these fruits are very doubtful. The thing is that in all these episodes Mannerheim — nothing more than a performer. That is the tool of those who conceived and planned these operations. He did    invest           I just did what I was told or what was written in instructions — and everything. Who is the author of “Eugene Onegin”? Alexander Pushkin or his quill pen? And here the alignment is approximately the same 

In general, real fruits, by which one is supposed to “know” man, you have to admit otherwise. Specifically — Mannerheim's deeds relating to the time when he from performer turned into the subject of Big History. B & nbsp; a person who makes decisions on & nbsp; a fairly serious level. The player of World Chessboard, if you will.

Here again, the term “Mannerheim Line” must be pulled out into the light of God. But not in the sense of the strip of defensive structures on the Karelian Isthmus, created on initiative of Carl Gustav. And about the political line that he carried out, or at times even bent.

How Great Finland was built

This Mannerheim line is both simple and fantastic at the same time. Great Finland from Baltic to Urals. The fact that it was planned to be built on Russian bones was not advertised, but implied. The former lieutenant general of the Russian army spent about a third of his rather long life precisely on achieving this brilliant goal.

For some mysterious reason, in the analysis of Soviet-Finnish relations, the USSR always gets the role of aggressor. Although it is known for certain that there were four armed conflicts between Soviet Russia and Finland, and in in three of four cases, it was Finland who carried out the attack.

Do it again. War of 1918-1920  To begin with, the Finns, under the leadership of Mannerheim, carry out a real genocide, with the goal of physically destroying all Russians who had the misfortune to stay by that time in the territory of Finland. They cut and shoot indiscriminately — then the  white officers who fled from "the horrors of Bolshevism", and their family members, and just Russians, who lived side by side with finns quietly, for example, in Vyborg and other cities. But that was just a prelude. Mannerheim was preparing an invasion directly into Russia. And it began under his speech, which was later called the “Oath of the Sword.” Here is a short fragment: “White Sea Karelia belongs to us by blood ties, and I swear that I will not sheathe my sword before the lawful order reigns in the” country, before all the fortifications are in & nbsp; ;our hands before the last warrior and hooligan Leninwill not be expelled from White Sea Karelia!» Mannerheim considered the goal of the war to be the separation from Russia of the entire Kola Peninsula and Eastern Karelia, as well as the demilitarization and dismemberment of Petrograd — instead, it was supposed to create a conglomeration of “city-republics” — Tsarskoye Selo, Gatchina, Oranienbaum… In a word, beauty.

Soviet Russia then, in fact, lost the war. Finland wrested several islands from Russia and the Pecheneg region in the Arctic. The general background was traditionally mass executions of captured Red Army soldiers and  ethnic cleansing on occupied territories.

Do two. In 1921  a new armed conflict took place. It does not have the status of war, since it was just a robbery attack by Finnish troops on Soviet Karelia. It didn not last long, but the consequences  —— the Finns, who came to “liberate their Karelian brothers, oppressed by the Russians”, could only rob these same brothers, and burn the houses of those who supported the Soviet regime. As a result, a good half of the Karelian population fought on the side of the Red Army.

Do three. One “Oath of the Sword” Mannerheim thought it was not enough. And in 1941  he pronounces the second. As you can understand, this time Finland attacks the USSR already in company with Nazi Germany. Appetite, respectively, increased. Officially in the second “Oath of the Sword” Mannerheim said this: “Soldiers! This land that you tread is watered with the blood of our compatriots and soaked with suffering, it is a holy land. Your victory will liberate Karelia, your deeds will create a great and happy future for Finland. That is, it is planned to capture and  digest as “just” Karelia. However, plans were made to create a protectorate over that part of the Soviet territory where the Finno-Ugric peoples lived — Komi, Mari, Chuvash, Khanty, Mansi … Plans were also made for the resettlement of the Mari and Mordovians in the Arkhangelsk region with the subsequent transformation of them into a protectorate of Finland. But until all this happened the Finns were finishing what they started 23 years ago — ethnic cleansing. But already on Soviet territory. 96% of the entire Russian population of Karelia was sent to concentration camps. The death rate in the Finnish concentration camps exceeded that in the German ones. And & nbsp; under the order: & nbsp; treat & nbsp; Eastern Karelians friendly, but & nbsp; cautiously. Take the Russian population into captivity and send it to concentration camps flaunts the signature of a “good man” who “faithfully and truly served Russia” — Carl Gustav Mannerheim.

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Ermolov – “Black Star”? Caucasus for the Russian general found the right words

Weekly “Argumenty i Fakty” No. 22. Science tortures boys and girls too 01/06/2022

245 years ago, June 4, 1777, in Moscow, in the lane between the Arbat and Prechistenka, with one artillery major — not rich, but erecting his kind to XVI c. — a son appeared. He, too, will be destined to become an artilleryman.

Yes such that Alexandre Dumas himself will honor him: “Since since the Borodino guns informed France of his name, surprise and  “respect for” him will never leave me. The name is heard of until  — Alexey Ermolov.

But for us, in contrast to the author of The Three Musketeers, Yermolov is connected not with the battle of Borodino, but with the Caucasus. And & nbsp; this connection is painted in & nbsp; rather formidable tones. So, modern Caucasian historians and publicists call him the “royal satrap”, “robber”, who, they say, “pacified” Caucasus to the state of a bloody desert. Some Russian publicists also agree with them, however, they do not condemn the general, but are proud of the fact that the name of "the formidable Yarmul" Caucasian mothers once frightened children. In a word, Yermolov's figure boils down to  one of his quotes:  Better from Terek to Sunzha I will leave the scorched empty steppes, rather than in the rear of Russian fortifications I will suffer robberies and robberies. Choose any — obedience or terrible extermination. With the only difference is that some evaluate this formula with a minus sign, while others — with plus sign.

Ermolov Alexey Petrovich. Engraving by A. G. Ukhtomsky, 1810s. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

Suvorov School

Meanwhile, it would not bad to remember that Ermolov came to the Caucasus already in strength and glory. And his strength and glory is rooted in the era of Catherine the Great, when a very young artillery officer began his service under the command of Alexander Suvorov. His baptism of fire was the command in & nbsp; 1794 & nbsp; battery during the storming of Prague — fortified suburbs of Warsaw. According to its results, Yermolov was awarded the Order of St. George IV degree.

That operation in Europe is usually called the “Prague Massacre”, and Suvorov and his officers are depicted as monsters and cannibals. Although the Russians did not show much cruelty then — out of 30 thousand Poles defending Prague surrendered and were released to the homes of 26 729 people. And there are 3271 people killed. So on "massacre" it doesn't pull at all. Moreover, before the assault, Suvorov gave the strictest order in relation to behavior with the enemy: “Whoever puts down a gun, the liberty.”

This style was absorbed by young Yermolov from a teacher. Here are the words of Suvorov before the assault on Izmail in 1790: “I arrived here with the army. Twenty-four hours of contemplation — will. First Shots — captivity. Storm — death". And this is the ultimatum that was put forward to the authorities and the inhabitants of Paris in March 1814. after the warning volleys of Yermolov’s batteries had died down: “If you don’t immediately surrender, then you won’t recognize the place where your capital stood.” The ultimatum was put forward by Emperor Alexander I, but authorship, most likely, belongs to Alexei Petrovich — it was he who was instructed by the tsar to write a manifesto on the capture of Paris and a manifesto on the end of the war. If you look at it, it's all the same formula as in the dialogue with highlanders: “Submission or terrible extermination.” In essence, Yermolov only brought the highest European standards of his time to the Caucasus. And not so much the standards of waging war as the standards of enforcing peace.

The troops of General Suvorov are in capitulated Warsaw. Engraving from 1878. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

On equals

This is very important for understanding Yermolov's role in the Caucasus. He was sent there not to start a colonial war, but to establish peace. Unlike the British, who acted in India as colonizers and conquerors, who did consider local residents as full-fledged people, Yermolov considered all Caucasian peoples not just equals, but and citizens of the empire. With all ensuing consequences in the form of rights and duties. After all, following the results of two successful wars — with Persia in 1804–1813  and   Turkey in 1806–1812  — Russia, in addition to Georgia, Abkhazia and Ossetia, already included in the empire, also acquired the khanates of Karabakh, Gandzha, Sheki, Derbent, Cuban… And now these territories were established imperial orders.

True, at first only on paper. In really — who cares about the tsar's manifesto of 1804 on banning the slave trade in the Caucasus? For a long time it seemed that nobody cared about him. But here in 1816 g. “Proconsul of the Caucasus” Yermolov is appointed. A few years later, Alexander Griboedov leaves a note in the travel notes: “Dadaniurt, Andreevskaya, surrounded by forest. There, at the bazaar, Yermolov used to be taken out for sale of captured people — now the sellers themselves are hanged…»

Yes, they hang. Because capturing people and trading them — illegal. Those who do not want to understand this in a good way will have to be led to obedience. But the latter does not at all mean continuous punitive campaigns and scorched-earth tactics. In the end, the word “conquer” has many meanings. For for example, “he conquered us with his charm.”

By the way, Yermolov used this resource often: “He” was not afraid to go beyond the outposts alone, accompanied by only one guide, a very experienced local native in his business, because he was confident in himself and in & nbsp; The fact that the highlanders respect him. On the other hand, the general is convinced that if he changes his course of action, he will immediately lose authority. This made an impression not only on ordinary people, but     experienced rulers. So, Khan of Shirvan Mustafa Yermolov struck by the fact that he came to him with a retinue of only five Cossacks. “That's what I stabbed him with!” — the general spoke afterwards.

Circassian Slave Market. Engraving of the first half of the 19th century. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

Until the world breaks down

Ermolov conducted purely military operations in the Caucasus solely out of necessity. And it was dictated from outside. England and France sought to keep the Caucasus in a state of war, to make it a hotbed of concern for Russia. European weapons and  military experts flowed to "non-peaceful highlanders" through Turkey by the river. Russia was also interested in reverse — bring peace to the Caucasus. There were all the prerequisites for this, including economic ones. Archaeological data show that this region was integrated into the system of the all-Russian market twenty years before Yermolov's arrival: “An impressive picture of the complete predominance of Russian monetary units in the numismatic panorama of the North Caucasus at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. ". It fell to Yermolov's share to streamline this market. First of all — exclude from hunting people and the slave trade. And and then set up normal trade and "raise" crafts: “We must try to bring the Chechens closer together by their frequent treatment of Russians. I will prescribe to the chief of troops on the Line about the establishment of trading in the Fortress of Grozny. This order will certainly attract the Chechens, whose products needed by our Linear Cossacks will be exchangeable. I will also give an order to build a mosque, where services can be held alternately on trading days by mullahs from villages located along the left bank of the Sunzha…»

Recognition of the peoples of the Caucasus as equal. Development of crafts and trade. Construction of resorts — it was Ermolov in 1823 g. established the Construction Commission at the Caucasian Mineral Waters, through whose work the North Caucasus received the status of a health resort. Respectful attention to the religion of local residents. This is what the “pacification of the Caucasus” was. As for the punitive actions Yermolov was the only Russian for the entire history of the integration of the Caucasus who got into folklore. “Yermolov, didn’t you feel sorry for ruining our Darga, seeing the tears and cries and sobs of our poor wives and children? You inflicted such great fear on our people as the Shah of Persia… But you rewarded the poor with money, and you feed the hungry with bread, and the people remember the glory of Yermolov among us until until the world collapses» ;. This is what the Dagestan legend says about the Russian general. Is anything worth adding to this? 

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Volodin considered Russia’s “arsenal of means to curb development” exhausted

According to Volodin, Russia's losses from the ban on exports to the EU will be compensated due to rising energy prices and reorientation to Asian markets. At the same time, Europe will overpay more than €250 billion annually, he believes alt=”Volodin considered Russia's “arsenal of means of restraining development” exhausted” />

Vyacheslav Volodin

State Duma Speaker Vyacheslav Volodin said on his Telegram channel that Western politicians, when imposing sanctions against Russia, must choose “between a bad and a very bad scenario for economies and citizens.” of their countries.

According to Volodin, the new package of EU sanctions adopted the day before, as well as previous measures by the EU and the United States, indicate that “the arsenal of means to curb the development of our country has been exhausted.”

< p>Volodin wrote that, according to experts, Russia's losses from the ban on oil exports to Europe could amount to $22 billion per year (such an estimate was given, in particular, by Bloomberg). However, according to the speaker, these costs will be compensated due to rising energy prices and Russia's reorientation to Asian markets. “And perhaps even our economy will turn out to be“ in the black, ”mdash; he guessed.

According to Volodin, Europe will overpay more than “250 billion euros annually due to record high energy prices,” this does not include additional costs for the transition of enterprises to new brands of oil.

On June 3, the EU Council approved the sixth package of anti-Russian sanctions. It includes a ban on the purchase, import or transfer of crude oil and certain petroleum products from Russia to the countries of the union. The embargo concerns the import of oil going by sea, it does not affect the fuel that is supplied to the EU countries via the Druzhba pipeline. Poland and Germany, where oil was supplied through its northern part, decided to abandon any form of supplies, so by the end of the year it will only enter the EU through the southern part (to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary).

Read on RBC Pro Pro Eurodollar “defect”: how the commodity crisis will change the position of the world currency Amazon: you need to rethink business when everything is fine >The phasing out of Russian oil imports will be phased in and will take anywhere from six months for crude oil to eight months for other refined products. Brussels has provided temporary exemptions for countries that “because of their geographical location suffer from a special dependence on supplies from Russia”, as well as for Bulgaria and Croatia in relation to seaborne imports of Russian oil and vacuum gas oil, respectively.

In Last year, the EU countries brought crude oil by sea for about €32.7 billion, or 68% of all oil imports from Russia. For €21.2 billion more, Europe imported Russian oil products by sea.

The press secretary of the Russian president, Dmitry Peskov, said earlier that Moscow would compensate for the falling orders with the eastern direction. He said that the oil embargo would “hit everyone” and that the European market was not the only one, even though it was a premium one. President Vladimir Putin, in turn, said that as a result of “chaotic actions” from the EU countries, their economies are being damaged, while the revenue of the Russian oil and gas sector is growing. He called what was happening “an economic auto-da-fé, a suicide.” European countries.

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Russian military shot down a plane with ammunition near Odessa

Konashenkov said that the Russian military destroyed 17 drones, including two Turkish Bayraktar TB2 drones, and an artillery preparation center of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, where foreign instructors worked. ammunition, Defense Ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov said.

According to him, during the day, the Russian military destroyed 17 drones near settlements in the Kharkiv and Mykolaiv regions, including two Turkish-made Bayraktar TB2s.

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Konashenkov claims that in the area of ​​the village of Dachnoye, Odessa region, the Russian military destroyed the stationing point of foreign mercenaries with a missile attack. In addition, they hit the artillery preparation center of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the Sumy region, where foreign instructors worked.

At the request of Roskomnadzor, RBC provides data on the details of the military operation in Ukraine based on information from Russian official sources.

According to the representative of the Ministry of Defense, 27 areas of concentration of manpower and military equipment of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, command posts and weapons depots in the areas of settlements of the DPR and LPR were also hit.

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In early May, the ministry announced that the Russian military had launched a strike with precision-guided Onyx missiles. through a logistics center at a military airfield near Odessa, through which foreign weapons were delivered. According to the agency, hangars with Bayraktar TB2 drones, as well as missile weapons and ammunition received from the United States and European countries, were destroyed.

On May 27, Konashenkov reported on the destruction of a large warehouse with 155-mm shells by high-precision air-launched missiles to American howitzers M-777 in the village of Razdolovka in Donbass.

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Person involved in Litvinenko case Kovtun dies of COVID-19 consequences

The death of Dmitry Kovtun was announced by State Duma deputy Andrei Lugovoy, whom the British authorities also consider guilty of poisoning Alexander Litvinenko with polonium. Previously, both of them have repeatedly denied involvement in the death of the ex-FSB officer alt=”Kovtun, figure involved in the Litvinenko case, died from the consequences of COVID” />

Dmitry Kovtun

Died businessman Dmitry Kovtun, whom the British authorities consider guilty of the death of former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko in 2006 in London. State Duma deputy Andrey Lugovoy announced this on his Telegram channel.

“As a result of a serious illness associated with coronavirus infection, my close and faithful friend Dmitry Kovtun suddenly died,”— he wrote. Lugovoy called Kovtun's death a bereavement and expressed his condolences to the family and friends of the businessman.

According to a TASS source close to Kovtun, the entrepreneur died on June 4 in a Moscow hospital from the effects of COVID-19.

Alexander Litvinenko left Russia with his family in 2000 and came to the UK after several criminal cases were opened against him in his homeland. According to UK law enforcement authorities, Litvinenko was poisoned with the radioactive substance polonium-210, which was mixed into his tea during a meeting with Kovtun, his former FSB colleague, and Lugovoi. They denied the accusations and claimed that they themselves were victims of poisoning.

Kovtun said in 2015 that Litvinenko died as a result of “negligent suicide”. According to the businessman, on the day they met, the former FSB officer complained about the poisoning. Kovtun also suggested that death could have occurred as a result of an accident.

However, Judge Sir Robert Owen, who led the public inquiry into the Litvinenko murder, ruled out that possibility. “He was intentionally poisoned by third parties,” — he said, expressing his belief that Kovtun and Lugovoi had placed the polonium-210 in the kettle at the Pine bar in London's Millennium Hotel. Kovtun considered that the judge came to this conclusion “on the basis of falsified, fabricated evidence”, and Lugovoy called the accusations against him absurd.

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In July 2015, at a hearing in London, the testimony of a secret witness was read out, according to which Kovtun told him about the intention to “lure” ex-FSB officer in an interview to “finish him off”.

In September last year, the ECtHR issued a verdict according to which the guilt of Lugovoy and Kovtun in Litvinenko's death is not questioned, and ordered Russia to pay €100,000 to the widow of former FSB officer Maria Carter (Marina Litvinenko). Press Secretary of the Russian President Dmitry Peskov called the accusations “unfounded”, noted that there were still no results of the investigation into the death of Litvinenko, and said that Moscow would not comply with the decision of the ECtHR.

The Russian Foreign Ministry considered the process of case of the murder of Litvinenko in the UK controversial and criminal, the Kremlin said London's conclusions were “superficial and very unprofessional”; and called them a quasi-investigation.

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